Textos Básicos em Nutrição Pet
A hipersensibilidade alimentar é um tipo de reação adversa de origem imunológica não sazonal e pruriginosa associada à ingestão de alguma substância (material antigênico) encontrada no alimento do cão (Scott et al, 2001) ou do gato. A base imunológica da alergia alimentar em cães e gatos não é bem caracterizada. Em humanos, a hipersensibilidade do tipo I é relatada com mais freqüência, porém, as hipersensibilidades dos tipos III e IV também estão envolvidas (Ihrke, 2009). Os sinais clínicos são cutâneos e normalmente incluem prurido e eritema, podendo afetar qualquer parte do corpo do animal sendo que a face, as orelhas, as extremidades e a região ventral são os locais mais acometidos. Freqüentemente, observa-se otite externa e, em casos graves, otite média. Pioderma secundário, dermatite piotraumática, sobrecrescimento bacteriano e sinais relacionados com prurido crônico como perda de pelos, hiperpigmentação, liquenificação, escoriação e ulceração também podem ocorrer (Loefler et al, 2004). Podem ocorrer sinais gastrintestinais juntamente com sinais dermatológicos.
Autor: Bruna Agy Loureiro
Referêcias Bibliográficas: Brown CM, Armstrong PJ, Globus H. Nutrition management of food allergy in dogs and cats. Compend; 17:637-659. 1995.
Scott, D.W.; Miller, C.E. Muller & Kirks´s. Small animal dermatology. 6th Ed Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. Canine Food Hypersensibilivity; p.615-24. 2001.
Palavras-chave: Hipersensibilidade Alimentar; Hipersensibilidad alimentaria; Água; Wather; Cães; Cão; Canine; Canino; nutrientes; essenciais.
From the functional point of view, water is essential for life. Older studies in dogs have demonstrated a high ability of the animals to survive without ingesting energy nutrients, and can spend more than 20 weeks without ingesting these nutrients. However, plants and animals die quickly when subjected to severe water restriction. Chemically the water is the combination of the elements hydrogen and oxygen, connected in the proportion of 2: 1, respectively (H2O), considered the most important nutrient, having the following functions:
- required for chemical reactions involving hydrolysis, eg enzymatic digestion;
- helps regulate body temperature;
- Helps to shape and elasticity to the body. As a major constituent of body fluids, water lubricates joints and eyes, protects the central nervous system and thoracic and abdominal viscera from impact, assists gas exchange, among others;
- Vehicle for the elimination of undesirable substances from the body
Autor: Bruna Agy Loureiro
Referêcias Bibliográficas: CARCIOFI, A.C.; BAZZOLI, R.S.; ZANNI, A. Influence of water content and the digestibility of pet foods on the water balance of cats. Brazilian Journal Veterinary, 42(6), 429-434, 2005.
Palavras-chave: Água; Cães; Cão; Nutrientes Essenciais;
Additives are substances intentionally incorporated into food in order to impart some desirable characteristics such as color, aroma, texture, stability or resistance to decomposition, provided that they do not impair its nutritional value. Since 1920, legally sanctioned feed and food additives have often been used. Dog and cat food manufacturers use a variety of additives to produce products that are visually appealing, have long lasting nutritional quality, have high palatability, and have a longer maturity.
The additives in dog and cat food are the same or very similar to those used for human food. In general, they provide three benefits to the food:
1. organoleptic, giving structure, texture and color;
2. technological, acting as binders and gelling agents and;
3. nutritional, acting as vitamins and antioxidants. Frequently used in human or animal foods include colorants, flavor enhancers, emulsifying agents, gelling substances, stabilizers, thickeners and process aids.
Since most commercial dog and cat foods are characterized as complete and balanced, nutrient enrichment with vitamins and minerals is the most important and beneficial use of certain food additives. Most of the ingredients with unfamiliar chemical names that appear on the packaging labels of processed foods are actually nutrients.
Because food processing technology and additives are difficult and confusing topics, additives can lead to misconceptions by misinformed people. Also, the theme is not always placed correctly; Consumer associations and some experts are often blamed for additives that cause all kinds of animal harm. In some circumstances advertising abuses the negative image of synthetic additives to promote "natural" or "free additive" products. Indeed, evidence linking a particular food or food component to a particular disease may be circumstantial and its consistency must be carefully evaluated.
Veterinarians do not always have customer responses alarmed by comments about nutrition, so they should improve their knowledge of the most common dog and cat food additives to be able to respond accurately to their customers' concerns. Those customers who wish to avoid additives should not be well informed about the types of additives present in dog and cat food or the possible negative consequences of not adding these compounds to food. Veterinarians should explain the positive aspects of additives to reassure customers who run a commercial product rather than a home-cooked food.
In a questionnaire that examined how consumers define the word 'natural', most mentioned the absence of various types of additives. In this questionnaire, additives are at the top of the list of food substances that they consider harmful to their health or is reason enough not to buy a food. However, when the known risks of food problems in humans qualify, the highest relative risk for foodborne illnesses (bacterial contamination) is around 100,000 times higher than the risk associated with additives.
Customers looking for additive-free products should first identify which additive they want to avoid. Some commercial products do not contain artificial colors or flavors or synthetic preservatives. Once you have indicated and considered the specific customer concern, you may be able to find an acceptable complete and balanced commercial product. aceitável.
Autor: Juliana Toloi Jeremias
Palavras-chave: aditivo; cães; cão; gato; gatos; corante; emulsificante; gelificante; estabilizante.
1- high-intensity activities such as running for two to three minutes;
2- intermediate activities of moderate to low intensity may have some short periods of high intensity, lasting a few minutes to hours;
3- long lasting endurance activities.
Palavras-chave: cão, cães, atleta, exercício físico, necessidades nutricionais
Autor: Richard C. Hill
Kaneko K1, Aoyagi Y, Fukuuchi T, Inazawa K, Yamaoka N. Total purine and purine base content of common foodstuffs for facilitating nutritional therapy for gout and hyperuricemia.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(5):709-21. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
Palavras-chave: Tursiops truncatus; Purinas; Golfinho; Urólitos de Urato;
The publication: Duffy ME, Specht A, Hill RC. Comparison between Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratios of Samples Obtained from Dogs in Home and Hospital Settings. J Vet Intern Med. 2015 Jul-Aug;29(4):1029-35. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12836. Epub 2015 Jun 8. discuss the importance of the creatinine dosage ......
Autor: Richard C. Hill
Referêcias Bibliográficas: Duffy ME, Specht A, Hill RC. Comparison between Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratios of Samples Obtained from Dogs in Home and Hospital Settings. J Vet Intern Med. 2015 Jul-Aug;29(4):1029-35. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12836. Epub 2015 Jun 8.
Palavras-chave: Creatinina; Creatinine; Cães; Canine; Dogs; Perros; Proteína urinária; Urine protein; Proteína de la orina; Canine; Kidney disease; Doença Renal; Protein losing nephropathy; Proteinuria
Autor: Cristiana de Santis Prada
Autor: Ricardo Souza Vasconcellos